The purpose of this article is to provide the user with a basic introduction to questions such as programming, web programming, what is an operating system.
This article is aimed at those who are interested in computer programming but do not know much about computers. “What is the operating system to eat?” We will seek answers to basic questions such as: It is a very short summary and many details are omitted.
The first computers were rather gigantic calculators. They were used for purposes such as solving relatively complex mathematical problems. Year: 1938! See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer
Computers continued to evolve, while second generation computers used vacuum tubes, 3rd generation computers now used transistors. While the first computers were fixed to fixed programs and could only do the tasks for which they were programmed, in the second and third generation computers were now programmable and these programs could be stored for reuse.
Programming in the beginning machine language machine language was not a language that could be read and interpreted by humans. of compilers His invention was one of the biggest factors that paved the way for programmable computers. Programs could now be written in logic close to human language and logic, and then translated into machine language and run.
The shrinking of transistors and the development of integrated circuit boards were preparing us for a new technological revolution: Microcomputers and Personal Computers!
Micro Computers It was the first step on the road to home computers. home computers they were both inexpensive and expandable as memory and input/output devices. The best part was that they could be plugged into televisions, which are now found in every home, and they were hosting games as an entertainment tool.
At first, every computer came with its own disk operating system (DOS). There was no unity in terms of software and hardware. The device you bought was working only if it was compatible with the relevant DOS. During this period, IBM began to lose its share in the computer market and with a new approach, personal computer (PC: Personal Computer) went into business and released his first open-architecture computer.
While all this was going on in the home computer market, a giant was already established and widely used: Unix. Many companies had versions of Unix that they customized.
IBM chose two companies' products for the PC: Intel for the processor and Microsoft for the operating system! Later, the horn ear would pass, and these two companies would become among the largest companies in their fields in the world.
Some of the words we heard the most between 1980-95 are probably:
The 2000s symbolizes a period of increasing communication. In this period, especially for Turkey, the Internet has started to become widespread, and even if it is not in every home, it has become an accessible service thanks to internet cafes. The replacement of dial-up connections by ADSL connections has provided a major breakthrough in this regard. This period, when everyone started to assemble their own computers from OEM parts and produce them cheaply, lasted until 2008-10.
Computers that are getting cheaper have made us use another electronic device more and more in our lives: Cell phones! The first smart devices that entered our lives after mobile phones were Apple iPhone smartphones, then Android mobile phones and then tablets.
Microsoft dominance/singularity in the computer and operating systems market began to end around 2010 with the arrival of iPhone and Android.
What is a computer and what does it do?
Computer/Computer is the general name of many programmable electronic devices that can be in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. A Supercomputer / Supercomputer used in space and aeronautics is also a computer, the laptop or desktop computer we probably have in our home is also a computer, the mobile phone in our pocket is also a computer in essence. Going much deeper, the Raspberry Pi single-board device is also a computer.
What is an operating system, what does it do?
This must be one of the most fundamental questions of the Pardus community: "What is an Operating System?"
From a technical point of view, it is software or software that provides common services for hardware resources and programs that process input from the user. In less technical terms; It is a set of software on which we install programs, but on which we do not have a say, except for making various visual settings in general.
What is the application, what does it do?
Applications are tools that receive the inputs of the user on the subject they are programmed, transmit them to the operating system and present the results processed in the operating system resources to the user. In its simplest terms, a calculator, a file manager, an Internet browser, an image viewer are all programs.
Applications can be written specifically for operating systems (Windows 10, Mac OS, Linux), or they can be written to support multiple operating systems. For example, Microsoft File Manager is written for Windows operating systems and will not work on other operating systems, while the Firefox internet browser is written to support multiple operating systems and can be installed or run by downloading installation or package files suitable for the operating system.
How to write an application?
Applications can be written using various programming languages. ImageMagick, for example, is software for converting images into various image types, written using the C language whose roots go back to 1990. They also have libraries for many other languages, and it is possible to make the application perform various tasks over the relevant languages.
As there are applications like ImageMagick that don't need an interface as long as it produces input and output GIMP There are also applications that mostly consist of interfaces, such as
In terms of operating systems; Most Microsoft applications were designed to use an interface as they evolved from MS-DOS to the Windows operating system. Likewise, the same situation applies to Mac OS, but this is not exactly the case for Linux.
How to get an app?
In older Windows environments, the application is usually distributed as installable files (exe, msi). Users would download, install and use them from various sites or sources. This approach is now generally abandoned and programs are started to be downloaded and installed more securely through various stores. Although it is possible to download files from untrusted sources for Mac OS, they are usually available from the Apple app store and are relatively safe. For Linux, it is generally possible to download from the repositories of each distribution, as well as to install packages that are compatible with the package system used by the distribution, Flatpak There is a wide choice (with various difficulties, of course) to install it via Snap or to run it with AppImage without creating a system dependency, or even to compile and install the program.
For mobile phones, on the other hand, secure application installation outside of stores is very limited and usually requires actions that will void the phone's warranty.
What is a website?
Before the Internet, it was possible to establish local networks. However, since these networks were not open to external access, they served as many computers as the internal networks they were connected to. Internet It was a great revolution, and behind this revolution, many tools and protocols needed to be developed to make the internet work.
What is server and web server?
Server, is a computer that processes the requests it receives from outside and produces results in accordance with the demands. While they can perform many tasks together, such as sending and receiving e-mail, communicating with other computers, sharing files over FTP, and transmitting messages using various protocols, there may be specialized servers for various services.
In the early days of the Internet, websites were relatively simple, very weak visually, and consisted of static pages that only presented information as interaction, but could not receive information other than the answers to be received from the user via e-mail, and could not keep statistics. Static pages are stored on servers, edited via various editors (FrontPage being the most famous) using FTP connections when necessary, and various web server software was presented to the user. It was possible to navigate between pages via links/links. Some pages could also contain images, but the images used among the general slowness of the internet were not preferred because they generally slow down the pages.
Where do the terms Frontend/Backend, Frontend/Backend come from?
In the beginning, the term webmaster was used for website builders. What was expected from a webmaster was that they usually manage the frontends of websites. The first websites contained very little content. Content had to be re-added one by one, various links had to be created.
In 1994 rasmus lerdorf He had written various CGI programs using the C language to keep his personal website afloat. Later, it expanded these programs to use web forms and finally provided database integration. PHP published the announcement. The first version of PHP is thus free and available under an open source (GPL) license. was running.
Now it was time to call the user-visible part of the website Frontend, and the server-side part to be called Backend.
Final Note: The purpose of this whole article is to provide basic introductory information to the user about programming, web programming, what is an operating system, and mobile phone applications. I hope you weren't too confused.
Opening image: melnyk58